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Scientists used to think that human cells contained 24 pairs of chromosomes.  In 1957, with a better microscope, it was shown that we only have 23 pairs!

 

 

ANIMAL CELLS:     Page 2 
For Parents & Teachers

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     "Well, there you are!  I was afraid for a minute that I had lost you.  We've wound our way over to the heart.  That's why its so loud here.  I'LL TRY TO SPEAK UP!

     "WE CAME HERE TO MEET HEATHER THE HEART CELL.  SHE, OF COURSE IS AN ANIMAL CELL.  HI! HEATHER!"

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     "Oh! Hi, Chloe!  I see you brought a new friend with you.  I'm glad you did!  If you want to look around, feel free.   Just try to stay away from my moving parts; can't afford to stop working to make repairs."

     "THANKS!  LIKE HEATHER SAID, WATCH YOUR FEET.  LETS LOOK AT WHAT HEATHER HAS INSIDE.

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     "CAN YOU SEE THAT HEATHER HAS A LOT OF THE SAME ORGANELLES AS RUDY AND LEANDA HAVE?  WHAT HEATHER DOESN'T HAVE IS A CELL WALL OR CHLOROPLASTS OR VACUOLES.  LETS TAKE A CLOSE LOOK AT HEATHER'S CYTOPLASM.

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     "HEATHER IS A TYPE OF MUSCLE CELL.  IN THE CYTOPLASM OF ALL MUSCLE CELLS THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF FIBERS THAT SLIDE UP AND DOWN AND CAUSE CONTRACTION.  THESE FIBERS ARE CALLED ACTIN AND MYOSIN.  SOME MUSCLE CELLS ONLY CONTRACT WHEN YOU WANT THEM TO, LIKE WHEN YOU WANT TO WALK OR CHEW A PIECE OF GUM.   OTHER MUSCLE CELLS, LIKE HEATHER, WORK ALL THE TIME, AUTOMATICALLY. 

     "IT TAKES A LOT OF ENERGY FOR MUSCLE CELLS TO CONTRACT AND THAT IS WHY MUSCLE CELLS HAVE A LOT OF THE ORGANELLES CALLED MITOCHONDRIA.   LETS LOOK!

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     "MITOCHONDRIA HAVE A SMALL PIECE OF THEIR OWN DNA.  LIKE CHLOROPLAST DNA, IT DOES NOT CODE FOR MANY PROTEINS.  BUT, THE ONES IT DOES CODE FOR ARE VERY IMPORTANT.

     "MITOCHONDRIA RELEASE THE LAST BIT OF SUNSHINE ENERGY FOR USE BY THE REST OF THE CELL.  THE CHLOROPLASTS IN PLANT CELLS USE SUNSHINE AND CO2 TO MAKE SUGAR.  ANIMALS EAT PLANTS AND THE SUGAR THAT IS INSIDE THEM.  THE SUGAR TRAVELS INTO THE CYTOPLASM OF ANIMAL CELLS WHERE IT BEGINS TO BE BROKEN DOWN TO RELEASE SOME OF THE SUNSHINE ENERGY.  THE LAST FEW STEPS OCCUR INSIDE THE MITOCHONDRIA, WHERE O2 IS USED TO HELP RELEASE THE LAST OF THE SUNSHINE ENERGY.  THIS PRODUCES CO2 THAT ANIMALS BREATH OUT FOR THE PLANTS TO TAKE BACK IN!

     In plants:
              sunshine + CO2 is made into sugar + O2
      In animals:
              sugar + O2 is made into energy + CO2

     'THIS IS ONE WAY ALL LIFE ON EARTH IS INTERDEPENDENT.   IT IS ALSO HOW THERE IS SUNSHINE IN EVERYONE.

     "THE SUNSHINE ENERGY RELEASED BY THE MITOCHONDRIA IS USED BY THE REST OF THE CELL TO DO WORK, LIKE MUSCLE CONTRACTION AND MAKING DNA AND PROTEINS.  WARM BLOODED ANIMALS ALSO USE IT TO STAY WARM!

     "LETS SAY GOODBYE TO HEATHER NOW, AND GO SEE SOME OF THE COOL THINGS THAT WHITE BLOOD CELLS CAN DO!

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ANIMAL CELLS: Page 2
For Parents & Teachers

 

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